President Harry Truman’s address to Congress on March 12, 1947, (Truman, a Democrat, was inaugurated on April 12, 1945) marked the start of the Truman Doctrine, which defined the U.S.’s attempts to contain the spread of communism. In a speech pledging financial support for Turkey and Greece, he said: ” ‘I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures. I believe that we must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way. I believe that our help should be primarily through economic and financial aid which is essential to economic stability and orderly political processes.'”

 – President Harry Truman, “Address of the President of the United States–‘Recommendation for Assistance to Greece and Turkey,'” March 12, 1947, Avalon Project, Avalon.Yale.edu, Accessed on 1/13/2016


“The era [of postwar American foreign policy] commenced in [March 12] 1947 with a congressional address by [President] Harry Truman in which he allowed the ‘frank recognition that totalitarian regimes imposed on free people, by direct or indirect aggression, undermine the foundations of international peace and hence the security of the United States.’ ”

 – Lawrence F. Kaplan and William Kristol, The War Over Iraq, Page 112


“In [July 26] 1947, during the Truman administration, Congress approved the National Security Act, which among other things created the Department of Defense (by merging the War and Navy departments), the CIA, and the National Security Council.”

 – Donald Rumsfeld, Known and Unknown, Page 317


In an address to the nation on July 19, 1950, President Harry Truman explained “why it was necessary for the United States to resist aggression in Korea. ‘Korea is a small country, thousands of miles away, but what is happening there is important to every American. …The attack upon Korea was an outright breach of the peace and a violation of the Charter of the United Nations. …This is a direct challenge to the efforts of the free nations to build the kind of world in which men can live in freedom and peace. …This challenge has been presented squarely. We must meet it squarely.’ ”

 – Richard N. Haass, War of Necessity, War of Choice, Pages 116-117


“In a [April 11] 1951 address explaining America’s participation in the Korean War, President [Harry] Truman insisted that if the allies ‘had followed the right policies in the 1930s–if the free countries had acted together to crush the aggression of the dictators, and if they had acted at the beginning when the aggression was small–there probably would have been no World War II. If history has taught us anything, it is that aggression anywhere in the world is a threat to peace everywhere in the world.’ ”

 – Lawrence F. Kaplan and William Kristol, The War Over Iraq, Page 115


As a majority Palestinian state, Jordan was unhappy with King Abdullah’s attempts for a peace treaty with Israel. “On July 20, 1951, while visiting the Al Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem, he [King Abdullah] was assassinated for his efforts by a Palestinian with links to the Muslim Brotherhood.”

 – Bruce Riedel, The Search for Al Qaeda, Page 91


On October 24, 1952, “The eight-page directive that [President Harry] Truman had signed made SIGINT [signals intelligence] a national responsibility and designated the secretary of defense as the U.S. government’s executive agent for all SIGINT activities, which placed NSA [National Security Agency] within the ambit of the Defense Department and outside the jurisdiction of the CIA. Truman gave the NSA a degree of power and authority above and beyond that ever given previously or since to any American intelligence agency, placing it outside the rubric of the rest of the U.S. intelligence community. Truman also ordered that the new agency’s powers be clearly defined and strengthened through the issuance of a new directive titled National Security Council Intelligence Directive No. 9 ‘Communications Intelligence.’ ”

 – Matthew M. Aid, The Secret Sentry, Page 44


-Dwight D. Eisenhower – Republican president elected
-Richard M. Nixon – Vice President



-Dwight D. Eisenhower – Republican president inaugurated
-Richard M. Nixon – Vice President



“US President Barack Obama made a major gesture of conciliation to Iran on Thursday [June 4, 2009] when he admitted US involvement in the [August 19] 1953 coup which overthrew the government of Prime Minister Mohammad Mossadegh. ‘In the middle of the Cold War, the United States played a role in the overthrow of a democratically elected Iranian government,’ Obama said in a keynote speech to the Muslim world in Cairo. It was the first time a serving US president had publicly admitted American involvement in the coup. The US Central Intelligence Agency, with British backing, masterminded the coup after Mossadegh nationalised the oil industry, run until then by the British-owned Anglo-Iranian Oil Company. For many Iranians, the coup demonstrated duplicity by the United States, which presented itself as a defender of freedom but did not hesitate to use underhand methods to get rid of a democratically elected government to suit its own economic and strategic interests.”

 – “Obama Admits US Involvement in 1953 Iran Coup,” Agence France-Presse, June 4, 2009