“British, French, American, Austrian, German, Swiss, Danish, and Swedish companies all contributed expertise to the Akashat/Al Qaim project, all believing that they were helping with the construction of a fertilizer production plant [in Iraq]. But the project turned out to be a classic example of dual-use technology. American and British intelligence officials have since confirmed that Iraq’s first nerve gas plant was constructed at Akashat at an estimated cost of $40 million, and a separate facility was constructed at Al Qaim. The plant was completed at about the time Saddam became president [July 17, 1979].”

 – Con Coughlin, Saddam: His Rise and Fall, Page 131