In an open letter to King Fahd of Saudi Arabia in August 1995, bin Laden declared, “A calamity has taken place and ‘for the first time the Crusaders have managed to achieve their historic ambitions and dreams…by gaining control over the Islamic holy places and the Holy Sanctuaries…turning the Arabian Peninsula into the biggest air, land, and sea base in the region.’ Bin Laden then asks: ‘After the Crusaders’ occupation of Saudi Arabia, the Jews’ violation of Palestine and Jerusalem, and the destruction and slaughter of Muslims in Chechnya and Bosnia, can matters get any worse?’ The answer: jihad must be the Muslim course, ‘so scholars rise up.’ This is Osama’s first clear call for militant resistance that links the Crusaders in Arabia with the Israelis in Palestine as the enemies.” [The 15th of the month is used for sorting purposes only.]

 – Bruce Riedel, The Search for Al Qaeda, Page 53