“[A] letter emerged, purportedly from Saddam Hussein, urging tribal leaders to launch a holy war against ‘the hated invaders’ and those who cooperate with them. ‘Call the sons of your tribes to the jihad because the day of salvation is near,’ said the message, obtained by the French news agency AFP [Agence France-Presse]. ‘Their demons made them believe Iraq would be just a mouthful. To the contrary, it has been poison for them,’ the letter, dated October 9 [2003], said. It was not clear whether Saddam’s signature on the letter was authentic.”

 – Michael Howard, “Troops Die as Saddam Urges Jihad,” The Guardian, Oct. 20, 2003