President Dwight Eisenhower “said he wanted to promote the idea of an Islamic jihad against godless communism. ‘We should do everything possible to stress the *holy war* aspect,’ he said at a September [7] 1957 White House meeting…”

 – Tim Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, Page 158


“Fifty years ago this week [on August 19, 1953], the CIA and the British SIS [Secret Intelligence Service] orchestrated a coup d’etat [in Iran] that toppled the democratically elected government of Mohammad Mossadegh. The prime minister and his nationalist supporters in parliament roused Britain’s ire when they nationalised the oil industry in 1951, which had previously been exclusively controlled by the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company. Mossadegh argued that Iran should begin profiting from its vast oil reserves. Britain accused him of violating the company’s legal rights and orchestrated a worldwide boycott of Iran’s oil that plunged the country into financial crisis. The British government tried to enlist the Americans in planning a coup, an idea originally rebuffed by President Truman. But when Dwight Eisenhower took over the White House, cold war ideologues–determined to prevent the possibility of a Soviet takeover–ordered the CIA to embark on its first covert operation against a foreign government. …the CIA–with British assistance–undermined Mossadegh’s government by bribing influential figures, planting false reports in newspapers and provoking street violence. Led by an agent named Kermit Roosevelt, the grandson of President Theodore Roosevelt, the CIA leaned on a young, insecure Shah to issue a decree dismissing Mossadegh as prime minister. By the end of Operation Ajax, some 300 people had died in firefights in the streets of Tehran.

 – Dan De Luce, “The Spectre of Operation Ajax,” The Guardian, Aug. 20, 2003


“US President Barack Obama made a major gesture of conciliation to Iran on Thursday [June 4, 2009] when he admitted US involvement in the [August 19] 1953 coup which overthrew the government of Prime Minister Mohammad Mossadegh. ‘In the middle of the Cold War, the United States played a role in the overthrow of a democratically elected Iranian government,’ Obama said in a keynote speech to the Muslim world in Cairo. It was the first time a serving US president had publicly admitted American involvement in the coup. The US Central Intelligence Agency, with British backing, masterminded the coup after Mossadegh nationalised the oil industry, run until then by the British-owned Anglo-Iranian Oil Company. For many Iranians, the coup demonstrated duplicity by the United States, which presented itself as a defender of freedom but did not hesitate to use underhand methods to get rid of a democratically elected government to suit its own economic and strategic interests.”

 – “Obama Admits US Involvement in 1953 Iran Coup,” Agence France-Presse, June 4, 2009


-Dwight D. Eisenhower – Republican president inaugurated
-Richard M. Nixon – Vice President



-Dwight D. Eisenhower – Republican president elected
-Richard M. Nixon – Vice President



On October 24, 1952, “The eight-page directive that [President Harry] Truman had signed made SIGINT [signals intelligence] a national responsibility and designated the secretary of defense as the U.S. government’s executive agent for all SIGINT activities, which placed NSA [National Security Agency] within the ambit of the Defense Department and outside the jurisdiction of the CIA. Truman gave the NSA a degree of power and authority above and beyond that ever given previously or since to any American intelligence agency, placing it outside the rubric of the rest of the U.S. intelligence community. Truman also ordered that the new agency’s powers be clearly defined and strengthened through the issuance of a new directive titled National Security Council Intelligence Directive No. 9 ‘Communications Intelligence.’ ”

 – Matthew M. Aid, The Secret Sentry, Page 44


As a majority Palestinian state, Jordan was unhappy with King Abdullah’s attempts for a peace treaty with Israel. “On July 20, 1951, while visiting the Al Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem, he [King Abdullah] was assassinated for his efforts by a Palestinian with links to the Muslim Brotherhood.”

 – Bruce Riedel, The Search for Al Qaeda, Page 91


“In a [April 11] 1951 address explaining America’s participation in the Korean War, President [Harry] Truman insisted that if the allies ‘had followed the right policies in the 1930s–if the free countries had acted together to crush the aggression of the dictators, and if they had acted at the beginning when the aggression was small–there probably would have been no World War II. If history has taught us anything, it is that aggression anywhere in the world is a threat to peace everywhere in the world.’ ”

 – Lawrence F. Kaplan and William Kristol, The War Over Iraq, Page 115


In an address to the nation on July 19, 1950, President Harry Truman explained “why it was necessary for the United States to resist aggression in Korea. ‘Korea is a small country, thousands of miles away, but what is happening there is important to every American. …The attack upon Korea was an outright breach of the peace and a violation of the Charter of the United Nations. …This is a direct challenge to the efforts of the free nations to build the kind of world in which men can live in freedom and peace. …This challenge has been presented squarely. We must meet it squarely.’ ”

 – Richard N. Haass, War of Necessity, War of Choice, Pages 116-117


“In [July 26] 1947, during the Truman administration, Congress approved the National Security Act, which among other things created the Department of Defense (by merging the War and Navy departments), the CIA, and the National Security Council.”

 – Donald Rumsfeld, Known and Unknown, Page 317